By nature, spinal deformity surgery carries an inherent risk of significant blood loss. This can in turn cause the patient to experience ischemia, shock, or stroke during the procedure, while major transfusions to replace the lost blood present the risk of postoperative reactions and secondary conditions. Recent studies have shown that the use of tranexamic acid (TXA), an anticlotting agent, can significantly lower these risks by reducing the amount of blood that a patient loses during major spinal deformity procedures.
Chinese researchers have found that high-dose tranexamic acid can reduce blood loss by up to 57.4 percent without significant adverse reactions. Similar studies in the United States have found similar results in testing the lower doses of the drug, which proved effective in reducing transfusion rates and drain output. Results suggest that TXA may be extremely beneficial to pediatric and adolescent patients as well as to adults, though further research is necessary to better understand the drug's effectiveness in various surgeries and settings.